The Perfection of Truthfulness - Four aditthana dhammas

We read in the “Paramatthadipaní”, the Commentary to the “Itivuttaka”, “As it was said”, Khuddaka Nikaya, the Commentary to The Ones, Ch 1, §1, Lobha Sutta, an elaboration of the words “arahat” and “bhagava”. We read about four aditthana dhammas, dhammas which are firm foundations of all the perfections. We read that the aditthana dhammas are: truthfulness, sacca, relinquishment, caga, calm or peace, upasama, and panna.
Sacca is truthfulness with regard to the development of panna with the aim to realize the four noble Truths.
We read in the Commentary to the Lobha Sutta:

“The word araham means that there should be truthfulness, sacca,

with regard to the development of kusala ...


The word bhagava refers to the fulfilment of the aditthana dhammas

of sacca, truthfulness, and caga, relinquishment.”

  Thus, if truthfulness and relinquishment are not firmly established, the four noble Truths cannot be realized. We read:

“The word bhagava refers to the fulfilment of the aditthana dhammas

of sacca, truthfulness, and caga, relinquishment,

by explaining the Blessed One’s truthfulness of his vow, patinya,

his truthfulness of speech and the truthfulness of his panna;

and by explaining the relinquishment of sense objects

which are considered important in the world,

such as gain, honour and praise,

and the complete relinquishment of the ‘kamma formations’ (abhisankharas),

which means that there are no more defilements remaining.”
Relinquishment, caga, does not only refer to the giving up of possessions, but it also means the giving up of clinging to sense objects, such as visible object and tangible object. Apart from this it also pertains to the giving up of what is considered important in the world: gain, honour and praise. Moreover, it refers to the relinquishment of all defilements. True relinquishment is the relinquishment of everything, even of all defilements. From the beginning one needs also sacca, truthfulness, as a firm foundation, so that defilements can be eradicated. We listen to the Dhamma, we understand it and we know that we still have a great deal of defilements. Therefore, we need further to develop and accumulate all the perfections in order to realize the noble Truths and to attain true relinquishment. 
We read further on:

“The word arahatta refers to the fulfilment of the aditthana dhammas

 (dhammas that are firm foundations) of upasama (calm or peace) and panna, 

by showing the attainment of the calming of all sankhara dhammas (conditioned realities)

 and by showing the attainment of the awakening wisdom.” 
We read about the importance of truthfulness as follows: 

“Therefore, the aditthana dhamma of sacca is the perfection developed by the Buddha 

when he was still a Bodhisatta 

and made the aspiration (abhinihara) for the fulfilment of the highest good 

which is supramundane.”

  An aspiration, abhinihara, is a weighty cause of receiving a weighty result, and  this is the attainment of Buddhahood.
We read:

“For this reason he accumulated each perfection in accordance with his vow 

and this was inspired by his great compassion. 

He fulfilled the aditthana dhamma of relinquishment as a perfection

because he relinquished what was an enemy.”

  Studying the Dhamma and applying it, and knowing the importance of the truth is  the way leading to the realization of the noble Truths. 

Topic 283