Everything in life is dukkha

The Buddha taught that everything in life is dukkha. Dukkha literally means pain, misery or suffering. However, the experience of the truth of dukkha is much deeper than a feeling of sorrow or contemplation  about suffering. It is the direct understanding of the impermanence of the nåmas and rúpas in our life and the realization that none of these phenomena is true happiness. Some people may think that pondering over this truth is already the experience of the truth of dukkha. However, o­ne does not have the real understanding of the truth if o­ne merely thinks about it. When paññå has been developed to the degree that the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa are directly understood, o­ne will come to realize the truth of dukkha. Then o­ne will gradually learn to be less attached to nåma and rúpa.

Topic 2