Summarizing the five jhāna-factors, necessary for the attainment of the first
stage of jhana, they are:
vitakka, which is translated as applied thinking.
vicāra, which is translated as sustained thinking.
pīti, which is translated as enthusiasm, rapture or happiness.
sukha, which is translated as happy feeling or bliss.
samādhi, which is concentration.
The jhāna-factors have to be developed in order to temporarily eliminate the
hindrances. For the person who wants to develop the jhāna-factors and attain
jhāna a great deal of preparation is required. We read in the
'Visuddhimagga' (II, 1; III, 1) that the person who wants to cultivate samatha
should be well established in sila (morality), which is purified by such qualities
as fewness of wishes, contentment, effacement, seclusion, energy, and,
modest needs. In observing some of the ascetic practices (as described in Ch.
II of the 'Visuddhimagga'), which pertain mostly to the monk with regard to
the use of his robes, his almsfood and his place of dwelling, virtue will
become more perfected.