The sotāpanna (the 'streamwinner', who has attained the first stage of
enlightenment) has eradicated the moha-mūla-citta which is accompanied by
doubt, vicikicchā; he has no more doubts about paramattha dhammas, he
knows the 'world in the ariyan sense’. He has no doubts about the Buddha,
the Dhamma and the Sangha. He has no doubts about the Path leading to the
end of defilements. The sotāpanna, the sakadāgāmīi (the 'once-returner', who
has attained the second stage of enlightenment) and the anāgāmī (the 'non-
returner', who has attained the third stage of enlightenment) still have the
type of moha-mūla-citta accompanied by uddhacca, restlessness. Only the
arahat has eradicated all akusala.
Ignorance is not seeing the true characteristic of realities, not knowing the
four Noble Truths. Out of ignorance one does not see the first Noble Truth,
the Truth of dukkha : one does not realize nāma and rūpa which appear as
impermanent and dukkha. One does not know the second Noble Truth: the
origin of dukkha which is craving. Because of clinging to nāma and rūpa there
is no end to the cycle of birth and death and thus there is no end to dukkha.
One does not know the Noble Truth of the cessation of dukkha, which is
nibbāna. One does not know the Noble Truth of the way leading to the
cessation of dukkha, which is the eightfold Path. The eightfold Path is
developed through vipassanā.
We read in the 'Kindred Sayings' (lV, Salāyatana-vagga, Kindred Sayings
about Jambukhādaka, par. 9) that the wanderer asked Sāriputta:
' "Ignorance, ignorance!" is the saying, friend Sāriputta.
Pray, what is ignorance?'
‘Not understanding about dukka, friend,
not understanding about the arising of dukkha,
the ceasing of dukkha,
the way leading to the ceasing of dukkha- -
this, friend, is called “ignorance” ‘
“But is there any way, friend,
any approach to the abandoning of this ignorance?
‘There is indeed a way, friend, to such abandoning.’
‘And what, friend, is that way,
that approach to the abandoning of this ignorance?’
‘It is this ariyan Eightfold Path, friend…’
The ariyan eightfold Path leads to the eradication of moha.