We read in the 'Kindred Savings' (III, Khandha-vagga, Last Fifty, par. 104, Suffering) that the Buddha taught to the monks the four noble Truths: the Truth of dukkha, the Truth of the arising of dukkha, the Truth of the ceasing of dukkha, the Truth of the way leading to the ceasing of dukkha.
Monks, I will teach You dukkha,
the arising of dukkha,
the ceasing of dukkha,
the way leading to the ceasing of dukkha.
Do you listen to it.
And what, monks, is dukkha?
It is to be called the five khandhas of grasping.
What five? The rūpakkhandha of grasping,
the vedanākkhandha of grasping,
the saññākkhandha of grasping,
the sankhārakkhandha of grasping,
the viññanakkhandha of grasping.
This, monks, is called dukkha.
And what, monks, is the arising of dukkha?
It is that craving... that leads downward to rebirth...
the craving for feeling, for rebirth, for no rebirth...
This, monks, is called the arising of dukkha.
And what, monks, is the ceasing of dukkha?
It is the utter passionless ceasing, the giving up,
the abandonment of, the release from,
the freedom from attachment to that craving...
This, monks, is called the ceasing of dukkha.
And what, monks, is the way going to the ceasing of dukkha?
It is this Ariyan Eightfold Path…
This, monks, is the way going to the ceasing of dukkha.
So long as there is still clinging to the khandhas
there will be the arising of the khandhas in rebirth,
and this means sorrow.
If we develop the Eightfold Path
we will learn to see what the khandhas really are.
Then we are on the way leading to the ceasing of dukkha,
which means: no more birth, old age, sickness and death.
Those who have attained the last stage of enlightenment,
the stage of the arahat, will be, after their life-span is over,
free from the khandhas.
- Realities classified by way of five khandhas
- All cetasikas classified as three khandhas
- All cittas are one khandha
- Khandhas are impermanent
- Khandhas can be experienced
- Bodily feeling and mental feeling
- Feeling classified by way of the contacts
- Perception is one khandha
- The fifty cetasikas
- Clinging to khandhas I
- Clingiln to khandhas II