When we study Dhamma it is essential to know which paramattha dhamma
such or such reality is. If we do not know this we may be misled by
conventional terms. We should, for example know that what we call 'body' are
actually different rūpa-paramattha dhammas, not citta or cetasika. We should
know that nibbāna is not citta or cetasika, but the fourth paramattha
dhamma. Nibbāna is the end of all conditioned realities which arise and fall
away: for the arahat, the perfected one, who passes away, there is no more
rebirth, no more nāmas and rūpas which arise and fall away. All conditioned
dhammas: citta, cetasika and rūpa, are impermanent, ''aniccā''. All
conditioned dhammas are ''dukkha''; they are suffering or unsatisfactory,
since they are impermanent.
All dhammas are non-self, ''anattā'' (in Pāli: sabbe dhammā anattā,
Dhammapada, vs. 279).
Thus, the conditioned dhammas, not nibbāna, are impermanent and dukkha.
But all dhammas, that is, the four paramattha dhammas, nibbana included,
have the characteristic of anattā, non-self.