The Four Paramattha Dhammas - Summary

Summarizing the four paramattha dhammas, they are:

1. citta

2. cetasika 

3. rūpa


When we study Dhamma it is essential to know which paramattha dhamma

such or such reality is. If we do not know this we may be misled by

conventional terms. We should, for example know that what we call 'body' are

actually different rūpa-paramattha dhammas, not citta or cetasika. We should

know that nibbāna is not citta or cetasika, but the fourth paramattha

dhamma. Nibbāna is the end of all conditioned realities which arise and fall

away: for the arahat, the perfected one, who passes away, there is no more

rebirth, no more nāmas and rūpas which arise and fall away. All conditioned

dhammas: citta, cetasika and rūpa, are impermanent, ''aniccā''. All

conditioned dhammas are ''dukkha''; they are suffering or unsatisfactory,

since they are impermanent.


All dhammas are non-self, ''anattā'' (in Pāli: sabbe dhammā anattā,

Dhammapada, vs. 279).


Thus, the conditioned dhammas, not nibbāna, are impermanent and dukkha.

But all dhammas, that is, the four paramattha dhammas, nibbana included,

have the characteristic of anattā, non-self.

Topic 174