1. 'Element of Earth' or solidity (to be experienced as hardness or
2. 'Element of Water' or cohesion
3. 'Element of Fire' or temperature (to be experienced as heat or cold)
4. 'Element of Wind' or motion (to be experienced as motion or
These ''Great Elements'' are the principle rūpas which arise together with all
the other kinds of rūpa, which are the derived rūpas (in Pāli: upādā-rūpa).
Rūpas never arise alone; they arise in ''groups'' or ''units''. There have to be
at least eight kinds of rūpa arising together. For example, whenever the rūpa
which is temperature arises, solidity, cohesion, motion and other rupas have
to arise as well. ''Derived rūpas'' are, for example, the physical sense-organs
of eyesense, earsense, smellingsense, tastingsense and bodysense, and the
sense-objects of visible object, sound, odour and flavour.